Exploration of intraclonal adaptation mechanisms of Pseudomonas brassicacearum facing cadmium toxicity.

TitleExploration of intraclonal adaptation mechanisms of Pseudomonas brassicacearum facing cadmium toxicity.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsPagès, D, Sanchez, L, Conrod, S, Gidrol, X, Fekete, A, Schmitt-Kopplin, P, Heulin, T, Achouak, W
JournalEnviron Microbiol
Date Published2007 Nov
KeywordsAdaptation, Biological, Amino Acids, Cadmium, Gene Expression Profiling, Molecular Sequence Data, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Oxidative Stress, Phenotype, Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas brassicacearum forms phenotypic variants in vitro as well as in planta during root colonization under natural conditions, leading to subpopulations (phase I and II cells) that differ in colony morphology and production of exoenzymes/secondary metabolites. The maximal concentration of cadmium allowing both variants growth was 25 muM; however, phase II cells accumulated fivefold higher Cd than phase I cells, even though both variants showed the same growth rate and kinetics, comprising a long stasis period (50 h). The whole transcriptome analysis of both variants in response to Cd was investigated using the home-made DNA microarrays. This analysis revealed completely different adaptation mechanisms developed by each variant to withstand and grow in the presence of the toxic. A re-organization of the cell wall to limit Cd entrance was noticed for phase I cells, as genes encoding levan exopolymers were downregulated at the expense of an upregulation of genes encoding alginate, and an upregulation of transporters such as cadA, and a downregulation of copper transporters. Phase II cells were unable to prevent Cd entrance and recruited genes under the control of oxyR and soxR regulation to face osmotic and oxidant stresses generated by Cd. Putrescine and spermidine metabolism appeared to play a central role in Cd tolerance. Microarray data were validated by biological analyses such as motility, oxidative stress assay, metabolite profiling with ICR-FT/MS and UPLC, capillary electrophoresis analysis of biogenic amines.

Alternate JournalEnviron. Microbiol.